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In order to make the explanation as simple as possible, it is considered advisable to discuss the subject under three separate groups, as follows:
In matching a shade where between 10 per cent and 50 per cent of blue is required to give the proper shade, the rule is that either ultramarine or Prussian may be used. The one which gives the shade with the simplest combination of pigments is of course the preferable one to use.
Ultramarine blue lets down with white to a reddish-toned blue, while Prussian blue lets down with white to a greenish-toned blue. In the presence of other pigments, such as bone black, umber, etc., these tones are not as pronounced but still must be regarded in mixing.
Experience in color mixing is, of course,
of value here in knowing just which pigment to use.
It must not be forgotten here that chrome green contains Prussian blue and this must be taken into consideration when chrome green is included in the formula. Dark chrome green contains approximately 50 per cent Prussian blue and light chrome green approximately 10 per cent Prussian blue.
There are three yellows in the Opex Mixing
Enamel Line : lemon, chrome yellow and permanent toning yellow. It is
very important that it be properly understood just where and when each
of these should be used in an enamel for best results.
Permanent Toning Yellow is of a different nature. In comparison to the above its outstanding characteristics are as follows:
From the above statements it can be seen that all three of these yellows are durable and have very good covering, but on account of limited light fastness when let down with whites or other colors, certain restrictions must be placed on the use of lemon and chrome yellow. The following rules should be observed:
Chrome yellow is also contained in chrome green and this must be taken into consideration when chrome green is included in the formula. Dark chrome green contains approximately 50 per cent chrome yellow and light chrome green approximately 90 per cent chrome yellow.
GREEN AND UMBER ENAMELS
The finisher has at his disposal two green
mixing enamels, light chrome green and dark chrome green. He is also able
to produce greens with the aid of blues and yellows. It is very necessary
that the master painter thoroughly understand when he should use a mixture
of yellow and blue to produce a green and when he should use a green to
obtain certain shades.
Light and dark chrome green are only fast to light when used in relatively large amounts, and therefore it is advisable to use a mixture of ultramarine blue and toning yellow when a small amount of green is required to obtain the shade that is being mixed.
Umber contains a very permanent pigment and may be used wherever possible. However, unlike the chrome green, it does not give a clean shade, and generally is only used in mixing shades of olive green. The following characteristics apply:
In matching a shade where green is required, the craftsman should always adhere to the following rules:
Note: It is not recommended to use umber in amounts over 50 per cent on account of the poor polishing characteristics of this pigment.
The two reds in the Opex Mixing Enamel Line are: crimson red, oxide red. In the same classification we can, for convenience in the discussion, include: chrome orange, sienna.
The finisher will save himself much trouble and labor by knowing the characteristics of these particular pigments.
Opex crimson red contains a non-bleeding pigment which is very permanent to light where used straight or as a self color, and even when used as a tinting color gives quite a permanent shade. It is also very clean and bright in tone. Like crimson red, Opex chrome orange has very similar characteristics and properties. They may be summed up as follows:
Oxide red and sienna are very similar to each other in properties. However, they distinctly differ from the crimson red and orange in that the pigments used in these enamels are "earth colors" and are very fast to light when used in any amount for blending, which means that oxide red and sienna mixing enamels should be used for tinting when a small amount of red is required.
Oxide red and sienna have the following general characteristics:
While comparing the qualities of the earth colors, i.e., oxide red and sienna, with the characteristics of the bright synthetic colors, crimson red and orange, it can be appreciated that the following rules must be observed to obtain shades that will not quickly fade when exposed to the ultraviolet rays of the sun:
Opex toning maroon is very rich in tone, and contains a pigment that, due to this quality, does not have quite as good opacity as some other pigments when used as a straight color. Nevertheless, it can be employed as a self color, preferably over a suitable ground coat, or body color, where desired, and will be found to chalk less on exposure than is generally common with other maroon lacquer enamels.
Opex toning maroon also enjoys the distinction of being non-bleeding. The following characteristics apply:
Bone black contains a pigment that is essential for a shading color, as it does not float like lamp black or carbon black. It is not a jet black, but rather a grayish brown black, therefore it should not be used as a straight color. Like oxide red and sienna, Opex bone black is an earth pigment and is very permanent to light when used for shading in any amount. A jet black is not necessary for a mixing enamel, as it is only used for shading and should not be used as an all-over body finishing coating. Bone black is also non-bleeding, and does not contain any dyes which not only cause bleeding but are very fugitive upon direct exposure to the ultra-violet sun rays.