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GLOSSARY OF TERMS
- Opacity—The meaning
of the word "opacity" is interpreted as follows:
An opaque film is a film that light cannot easily pass through and is
therefore the opposite to transparent. When a lacquer film has good
opacity, it means that this film will have good "hiding" or
Note: The more opaque a lacquer film is, the better it will stand
up to the ultraviolet rays of the sun.
- Light Fastness—The
phrase "light-fastness" or "fast to light" applies
to a non-fading color or a color that when exposed to the ultra-violet
rays of the sun will not fade out.
- Let Down—When
a color is "let-down" it is "extended" or "diluted"
with the addition of white. For example, a pink or a cream shade would
be made by "letting down" a red or a yellow as the case may
term "non-bleeding" in this book is used to indicate that
the lacquer or pigment referred to does not penetrate through the next
coat when another color is sprayed over it.
For Example: When white is applied over red, and the red comes up in
the white making it pink, the red is said to be "bleeding."
- Tone—Over Tone,
Top Tone, and Mass Tone refer to the appearance of a full strength color
by reflected light.
- Tinting Strength—Tinting
Strength is the ability of a color to predominate when mixed with another
refers to the lack of stability of a color when exposed to sunlight.
in a film refers to the separation of pigments of different specific
gravities, whereby the lighter one comes to the surface.
refers to Body, Fluidity, Consistency of the liquids.
at ordinary temperatures on exposure to air.
- Lacquer Enamel—This
term distinguishes the finishing or color coats from the undercoatings.
primary or surfacing coats. Undercoatings
- Mist Coat—A finely
atomized spray resulting in a very light coat.
- Flood Coat—A heavy,
full, or wet coat.
- Nitrated Cotton—This
is sometimes referred to as cellulose nitrate, nitro-cotton, or nitro-cellulose—cotton
which is treated with nitric and sulphuric acid, which change its chemical
structure so that it will dissolve or be soluble in lacquer solvents.
This permits the cotton to be put into a liquid state so it may be sprayed
and upon evaporation of the solvents becomes a solid again in the form
of a film.
- Solid Content—The
solids, or the non-volatile portion of a lacquer, which form the final
film (nitrated cotton, gum, plasticizer, and pigment) that are incorporated
into a lacquer. Their individual characteristics are as follows:
- Nitrated Cotton—Hardness,
Toughness, Durability. Gum—Gloss, Adhesion.
base liquids that dissolve the nitrated cotton (with the familiar "banana
oil" odor), produced in a process of distillation in the fermentation
of corn mash (with the active assistance of trained "bugs"
or culture). These solvents have a wide range of evaporation—some
are very quick dryers; others dry very slowly. The low boilers or quick
dryers are cheap in cost, whereas the slow dryers are expensive, and
the amount of medium or high boilers employed in the formulation determines
both the quality and cost of the solvent mix.
liquids that are distillates of coal tar, petroleum, or ordinary alcohol
which are solvents for the gums or resins incorporated into a lacquer.
A good formulation must contain a scientifically correct amount of both
solvents and non-solvents in order that neither the cotton nor the gum
will be precipitated by an unbalanced solvent mixture at the end of
drying. The non-solvents are also available in a wide range of evaporation,
and therefore their selection has an important bearing upon the flow
of the solids in the drying process.
- Solvent Mix—A blend
of several solvents. There is no one solvent that will efficiently dissolve
each of the solids, so the formulator must group a number to obtain
complete solubility, keeping results rather than cost foremost in his
- Binder—The nitrated
cotton, gum, and plasticizer which serve to hold the pigment together
in a tight, impervious film. The percentage of binder to pigment must
be carefully proportioned if we are to have a film with sufficient elasticity
and not be short or become embrittled prematurely.
- Chalking—A disintegration
or gradual wearing away of the film. Represents the manner in which
a good lacquer or house paint wears away in contrast to the common checking
of a varnish film. It is not natural for a good lacquer enamel to check
or crack, and when one does it is due to improper application or formulation.
Blues and maroons generally chalk sooner than other colors, due to the
inherent characteristics of the pigment.
- Settling—All pigmented
or colored lacquers have a tendency to settle in the bottom of the package,
upon standing in stock a long time. That is why we urge that all lacquers
be thoroughly stirred before being used; so all the pigment is incorporated
with the liquid which contains the binder (nitrated cotton, gum and
plasticizer). Otherwise, the lacquer will lack covering or be off-shade.
To prevent as far as possible this settling of the pigment, pigmented
lacquers or lacquer enamels are put up in a heavy body that must be
reduced for spraying. Clear lacquers containing no pigment are, therefore,
offered to the trade ready to spray, though they may be formulated to