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GLOSSARY OF TERMS
- Opacity—The meaning of the word "opacity" is interpreted as follows:
An opaque film is a film that light cannot easily pass through and is therefore the opposite to transparent. When a lacquer film has good opacity, it means that this film will have good "hiding" or "covering" properties.
Note: The more opaque a lacquer film is, the better it will stand up to the ultraviolet rays of the sun.
- Light Fastness—The phrase "light-fastness" or "fast to light" applies to a non-fading color or a color that when exposed to the ultra-violet rays of the sun will not fade out.
- Let Down—When a color is "let-down" it is "extended" or "diluted" with the addition of white. For example, a pink or a cream shade would be made by "letting down" a red or a yellow as the case may be.
- Non-Bleeding—The term "non-bleeding" in this book is used to indicate that the lacquer or pigment referred to does not penetrate through the next coat when another color is sprayed over it.
For Example: When white is applied over red, and the red comes up in the white making it pink, the red is said to be "bleeding."
- Tone—Over Tone, Top Tone, and Mass Tone refer to the appearance of a full strength color by reflected light.
- Tinting Strength—Tinting Strength is the ability of a color to predominate when mixed with another color.
- Fugitive—Fugitive refers to the lack of stability of a color when exposed to sunlight.
- Floating—Floating in a film refers to the separation of pigments of different specific gravities, whereby the lighter one comes to the surface.
- Viscosity—Viscosity refers to Body, Fluidity, Consistency of the liquids.
- Volatile—Evaporating at ordinary temperatures on exposure to air.
- Lacquer Enamel—This term distinguishes the finishing or color coats from the undercoatings.
- Undercoatings—The primary or surfacing coats. Undercoatings
- Mist Coat—A finely atomized spray resulting in a very light coat.
- Flood Coat—A heavy, full, or wet coat.
- Nitrated Cotton—This is sometimes referred to as cellulose nitrate, nitro-cotton, or nitro-cellulose—cotton which is treated with nitric and sulphuric acid, which change its chemical structure so that it will dissolve or be soluble in lacquer solvents. This permits the cotton to be put into a liquid state so it may be sprayed and upon evaporation of the solvents becomes a solid again in the form of a film.
- Solid Content—The solids, or the non-volatile portion of a lacquer, which form the final film (nitrated cotton, gum, plasticizer, and pigment) that are incorporated into a lacquer. Their individual characteristics are as follows:
- Nitrated Cotton—Hardness, Toughness, Durability. Gum—Gloss, Adhesion.
- Plasticizer—Elasticity or Flexibility.
- Pigment—Color and Opacity.
- Solvents—Alcohol base liquids that dissolve the nitrated cotton (with the familiar "banana oil" odor), produced in a process of distillation in the fermentation of corn mash (with the active assistance of trained "bugs" or culture). These solvents have a wide range of evaporation—some are very quick dryers; others dry very slowly. The low boilers or quick dryers are cheap in cost, whereas the slow dryers are expensive, and the amount of medium or high boilers employed in the formulation determines both the quality and cost of the solvent mix.
- Non-Solvents—Volatile liquids that are distillates of coal tar, petroleum, or ordinary alcohol which are solvents for the gums or resins incorporated into a lacquer. A good formulation must contain a scientifically correct amount of both solvents and non-solvents in order that neither the cotton nor the gum will be precipitated by an unbalanced solvent mixture at the end of drying. The non-solvents are also available in a wide range of evaporation, and therefore their selection has an important bearing upon the flow of the solids in the drying process.
- Solvent Mix—A blend of several solvents. There is no one solvent that will efficiently dissolve each of the solids, so the formulator must group a number to obtain complete solubility, keeping results rather than cost foremost in his calculations.
- Binder—The nitrated cotton, gum, and plasticizer which serve to hold the pigment together in a tight, impervious film. The percentage of binder to pigment must be carefully proportioned if we are to have a film with sufficient elasticity and not be short or become embrittled prematurely.
- Chalking—A disintegration or gradual wearing away of the film. Represents the manner in which a good lacquer or house paint wears away in contrast to the common checking of a varnish film. It is not natural for a good lacquer enamel to check or crack, and when one does it is due to improper application or formulation. Blues and maroons generally chalk sooner than other colors, due to the inherent characteristics of the pigment.
- Settling—All pigmented or colored lacquers have a tendency to settle in the bottom of the package, upon standing in stock a long time. That is why we urge that all lacquers be thoroughly stirred before being used; so all the pigment is incorporated with the liquid which contains the binder (nitrated cotton, gum and plasticizer). Otherwise, the lacquer will lack covering or be off-shade. To prevent as far as possible this settling of the pigment, pigmented lacquers or lacquer enamels are put up in a heavy body that must be reduced for spraying. Clear lacquers containing no pigment are, therefore, offered to the trade ready to spray, though they may be formulated to take reduction.